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* An Egyptian Faience Offering Cup for Queen Twosret, 19th Dynasty, ca. 1187-1185 B.C.

PB-EF001

of cylindrical form tapering towards base and slightly flared offset rim and foot, incribed with hieroglyphic text in black glaze in two columns, including the cartouche for the female Pharaoh Twosret; the first translates, "Mistress of the Two Lands, Sit-Re Meri(t)-amun, [beloved] of Osiris lord of Rostau."

Background: Following the death of her husband Seti II in 1194 BC, Twosret eventually took the throne for herself, declaring herself queen and using the full pharaonic titles as Hatshepsut had done some 300 years earlier. During her short two year reign, she sent out expeditions to Sinai and Palestine and built a beautifully decorated tomb in the Valley of the Kings that was later usurped by Setnakhte, first king of the 20th dynasty. In addition to her tomb, work was begun on a mortuary temple south of the Ramesseum, the foundations of which were discovered by Flinders Petrie. Objects with her name have been found at Deir el-Alla in Palestine and Serabit el-Khadem in the Sinai, and a statue of her has been found in Heliopolis. Her name also appears at Abydos, Hermopolis and Memphis. A horde of gold and silver vessels bearing her name has been found at the site of Bubastis. With her death came the end of the line of legitimate successors to Rameses II and thus the 19th Dynasty.

Condition: Intact and in very good condition overall, with some incrustation to the exterior and very good remaining black pigment.

Dimensions: Height: 5cm (2in)

Provenance: Private Californian collection, acquired from the trade in the early 1990s.

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